Updated: Mar 25, 2020
Vitamins are essential in maintaining your thyroid health. However, many people who suffer from thyroid disorders are often found to be vitamin deficient. A few symptoms of thyroid disorders include hair loss, loss of energy, sudden weight gain and difficulty losing weight, dry skin, constipation, and increases in cholesterol.
Your thyroid is mainly responsible for producing or discharging hormones that help regulate the rest of your body. Here is a general explanation for how your thyroid and hormones work together. Your body contains a TSH (ThyroidStimulatingHormone) that is usually measured by your doctor when you go to get a thyroid checkup. The TSH comes from your brain and goes to your thyroid glands, signaling them to produce T4, which is also known as your inactive thyroid hormone. The T4 travels within your tissues and your bloodstream until it gets converted into T3, which his your active thyroid hormone. Then T3 gets into your cells to reach your nuclear receptor to increase your metabolism.
The vitamins that are found to be most deficient among people who suffer from thyroid disorders are vitamins B-12, D, A, B2 and C. The deficiency of Vitamin D is found to be the most influential in thyroid disorders.
Vitamin D has anti inflammatory properties that help increase the flexibility of your immune system. Therefore, if the levels of vitamin D in your body get seriously low, you may fall prey to autoimmune thyroid disease, also known as AITD.
According to a study titled "The Role of Vitamin D in Thyroid Diseases, "recent evidence has demonstrated an association between low vitamin D status and autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease, and impaired vitamin D signaling has been reported in thyroid cancers."
Deficiencies in vitamins B1, B6, C and E can also lead to an overactive thyroid, which weakens the muscles. Vitamin C is also responsible for keeping your thyroid healthy; if your body remains deficient in vitamin C for too long, it can cause your thyroid to produce too much hormone. This is the same with vitamin E, but a deficiency in vitamin E can also cause your body to produce less TSH, which, as mentioned earlier, disrupts your whole system. If your body lacks vitamin B6, it will not be able to use iodine as its raw material in producing or discharging hormones. Deficiencies in vitamin B2 suppresses the functioning of your thyroid and it fails to produce hormones.
Last but not least, a weak thyroid cannot absorb vitamin B12, which may result in various neurological problems like neuritis, neuralgia, bursitis, and various mental illnesses. A deficiency in vitamin B12 can also cause and worsen Hypothyroidism, which is a deficiency in thyroid hormones.
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The Role of Vitamin D in Thyroid Diseases: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5618598/
Vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid diseases: facts and unresolved questions.: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407646
Vitamin B12 in health and disease: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257642/